Publication Date

Summer 6-2023

Document Type



This Essay is the first to explain how and why Ella P. Stewart, who was among the first Black women to earn a doctoral degree in Pharmacy, used her status as a small business owner to protect the limited set of legal rights that were available to African-Americans in the twentieth century. It also describes how Stewart’s early personal and professional experiences informed her subsequent public service career. Additionally, this Essay highlights the various ways that Stewart expanded the real freedoms that Black Americans enjoyed by guaranteeing they received a fair share of public goods or services. It concludes by recommending that contemporary pharmacists also work to eliminate unjustified disparities in public good or service provision, especially if they own small businesses that serve traditionally disadvantaged groups.

Publication Title

Administrative Law Review Accord